Potato

Solanum tuberosum

Potato is an annual plant that produces edible tubers. It is the most important tuber crop worldwide. Potato is grown across temperate and some tropical areas in the world, and it is the fourth most important crop worldwide (after maize, wheat and rice).

The crop originated in the Andes Mountains of South America. It is estimated that its domestication took place about 7000 BP. Andean cultivated potatoes are highly diverse, with high levels of polymorphism and polyploidy, and different taxonomic treatments. Potato was introduced to Europe by the returning Spanish Conquistadores during the 16th century. Later, between the late 16th and early 17th century, European traders expanded the crop to Asia and Africa.

Potato is conserved as botanical seeds, live plants in the field and in vitro plantlets. Eleven collections together conserve 86% of the total number of accessions, as reported in the global strategy for the ex situ conservation of potato

Genesys lists about 25,000 accessions, 19% of which are landraces and 24% wild relatives. The largest potato collections are in the Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kultupflanzenforschung (IPK), the USDA-ARS genebanks and the International Potato Center (CIP).

Complementary efforts to conserve potato diversity in its center of origin include the Parque de la Papa, where six local Quechua communities use, manage and protect more than 600 potato landraces. CIP collaborates with the Potato Park by repatriating disease-free cultivars and supporting traditional practices for food security and local development. 

General information

Size of genebank collections

Other accepted names

Taxonomic rules

+ Solanum acaule

+ Solanum andigenum

+ Solanum andigenum

+ Solanum berthaultii

+ Solanum boliviense

+ Solanum brevicaule

+ Solanum bukasovii

+ Solanum bulbocastanum

+ Solanum cajamarquense

+ Solanum candolleanum

+ Solanum cardiophyllum

+ Solanum chacoense

+ Solanum chaucha

+ Solanum chomatophilum

+ Solanum colombianum

+ Solanum commersonii

+ Solanum curtilobum

+ Solanum demissum

+ Solanum dihaploid

+ Solanum fendleri

+ Solanum goniocalyx

+ Solanum gourlayi

+ Solanum gourlayi hawkes

+ Solanum infundibuliforme

+ Solanum iopetalum

+ Solanum jamesii

+ Solanum kurtzianum

+ Solanum kurtzianum bitt et wittm

+ Solanum leptophyes

+ Solanum megistacrolobum

+ Solanum megistacrolobum bitt

+ Solanum microdontum

+ Solanum oplocense

+ Solanum palustre

+ Solanum phureja

+ Solanum pinnatisectum

+ Solanum polyadenium

+ Solanum polytrichon

+ Solanum raphanifolium

+ Solanum rybinii

+ Solanum sparsipilum

+ Solanum spegazinii bitt

+ Solanum spegazzinii

+ Solanum stenophyllidium bitt.

+ Solanum stenotomum

+ Solanum stenotomum

+ Solanum stoloniferum

+ Solanum sucrense

+ Solanum tarijense

+ Solanum tuberosum

+ Solanum vernei

+ Solanum verrucosum

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