Základní informace

Wheat

Triticum spp.

Wheat is the most important crop in the world in terms of area harvested (220 million hectares in 2014). The main types of cultivated wheat are the hexaploid bread wheat (T. aestivum), and tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum). Other types of wheat, such as einkorn, emmer and spelt, are still grown on a more limited scale in some regions, though interest has been increasing of late.

The earliest forms of domesticated wheat originated in southeast Turkey. From there, the crop spread to the Near East (9000 BP). The dispersal of the crop into Europe occurred through Greece (8000 BP). It reached the Balkans, the Danube, and southern Europe by 7000 BP. Wheat was brought to China through Iran and Central Asia (3000 BP), and it entered Africa through Egypt. The Spanish introduced the crop to Mexico in the 16th century. 

Wheat is conserved as seeds. Over 560,000 accessions are held among 40 different collections, as described in the global ex situ conservation strategy for wheat, rye and triticale.

Almost 320,000 wheat accessions are visible on Genesys. Nearly 23% of these are landraces, and about 7% are wild relatives. The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) hosts the largest wheat collection in the world, followed by the USDA-ARS genebanks, the Australian Grains Genebank and ICARDA.

Wheat is expected to be negatively impacted by climate change. Due to its importance in diets and livelihoods, a global effort led by CIMMYT is harnessing the genetic diversity of wheat to produce more resilient, productive and nutritious varieties.

Původní název
Wheat
Přírůstky v Genesys
42399934072_c5d4bfe3f5_o.jpg
Uchovávající ústavy
MEX002
USA029
LBN002
AUS165
RUS001
Ostatní
130 812
země uchovávajícího ústavu
Ostatní
125 256
Nejvíce zastoupený rod
Triticum
Aegilops
X Triticoaegilops
Secale
Elymus
Ostatní
627
Neurčeno
3
Nejvíce zastoupené Druhy
Triticum aestivum
Triticum turgidum
Triticum triticum aestivum
Triticum triticum durum
Triticum durum
Ostatní
26 403
Jiné názvy
bread wheat
common wheat
durum wheat
soft wheat
spring wheat
trigo
wheat
winter wheat